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News-Medical.Net /Celiac Disease News Feed

News-Medical.Net /Celiac Disease News FeedAmount of gluten triggers genetic risk of celiac disease, research showsStudy suggests interactions between distant DNA regions may impact disease gene levelsEnzyme from oral bacteria could be potential therapy for celiac disease

http://www.news-medical.net/syndication.axd?tag=/Celiac-Disease Latest /Celiac Disease News and Research http://www.news-medical.net/news/20160923/Amount-of-gluten-triggers-genetic-risk-of-celiac-disease-research-shows.aspx http://www.news-medical.net/post.aspx?id=c72e5e2f-8f93-41a0-b1a1-caad035dcb4e <p>The amount of gluten could be a more important clue than breast-feeding or the timing of the introduction of gluten for continued research into the causes of celiac disease (gluten intolerance). This is one of the findings from several extensive studies of children with an increased genetic risk of celiac disease conducted by researchers at Lund University in Sweden.</p> <p>Sweden is a high-risk country for the development of celiac disease in early life. Currently, the only known and effective treatment for the disease is for patients to follow a gluten-free diet for the rest of their lives. It is still unclear why gluten intolerance occurs, but researchers all over the world have long focused their efforts on factors such as breast-feeding, dietary habits, the timing of the introduction of gluten and geographical origin. A new doctoral thesis from Lund University includes studies covering all these aspects.</p> <p>”Our findings indicate that the amount of gluten triggers the disease. We have also observed that the dietary habits among the children we studied vary from one country to another, and that there are reasons to analyse the significance of this variation more closely. More in-depth studies could perhaps contribute to explaining why Swedish children develop celiac disease earlier than children in other countries”, says Carin Andrén Aronsson, a dietician and doctoral student at Lund University, continuing:</p> <blockquote> <p>The timing of the introduction of gluten, on the other hand, does not seem to be of great significance. We conducted a very extensive study which confirms similar conclusions from previous, smaller studies.</p> </blockquote> <p>All the research in the doctoral thesis is based on small children born with an increased genetic risk of developing celiac disease. Some of the most important conclusions are:</p> <ul><li>Swedish children whose reported daily intake of gluten was high (more than five grams) up to the age of two years had twice the risk of developing coeliac disease compared to children who consumed a smaller amount. The results from the same sub-study also show that children with celiac disease ate more gluten.</li> </ul><ul><li>The risk of developing the autoimmunity which gives rise to celiac disease was highest in Sweden compared to the other countries in the study (Finland, Germany and USA). The result held after adjustment for some of the most important causes of celiac disease (carrying the risk gene, previous diagnosis in the family and gender).</li> </ul><div class=”related-content-embed”> <h3>Related Stories</h3> </div> <ul><li>Breast-feeding (starting point/duration), the timing of the first introduction of solid foods and the type of diet varied among the countries studied. European children were first introduced to potatoes and root vegetables while American children were first given rice and root vegetables. There was no apparent connection between the duration of the period of breast-feeding and the risk of developing celiac disease.</li> </ul><ul><li>The timing alone of the introduction of gluten in the diet is not an independent risk factor for subsequent development of gluten intolerance.</li> </ul><p>The issues surrounding gluten intolerance will continue to occupy Carin Andrén Aronsson after the public defence of her thesis.</p> <p>”We will investigate the significance of the amount of gluten in a large new study. Is the gluten intake of Swedish children different from that of children in other countries? We will expand the study with children from the other participant countries and increase the follow-up period in comparison with our previous studies, from two to five years. We will also investigate whether the addition of probiotics (beneficial bacteria) to the diet has any effect on the risk of developing celiac disease”, explains Carin Andrén Aronsson, before adding:</p> <blockquote> <p>With more knowledge about the significance of diet, I hope it will become possible to personalise the diet instead of having general dietary guidelines as we have today.</p> </blockquote> <p>The basis for the studies in the doctoral thesis is a cohort of up to 8 700 children in four countries: Sweden, Finland, Germany and the USA. The children are part of an international research project, TEDDY (The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young), whose aim is to determine the reasons why children get type 1 diabetes and/or coeliac disease. The principal funding body behind the study is the National Institutes of Health,(NIH) in the US.</p> <p>”It is a very major and resource-intensive endeavour to determine the causes of celiac disease. Thanks to the children in the TEDDY study, we can conduct several studies of significance to research”, explains Carin Andrén Aronsson.</p> <div class=”content-source”> <div class=”content-src-value”> <p><a href=”http://www.lunduniversity.lu.se/” target=”_blank”>http://www.lunduniversity.lu.se/</a></p> </div> </div> <p><strong><a href=”https://blockads.fivefilters.org”>Let’s block ads!</a></strong> <a href=”https://github.com/fivefilters/block-ads/wiki/There-are-no-acceptable-ads”>(Why?)</a></p> Fri, 23 Sep 2016 08:41:00 +0000 Amount of gluten triggers genetic risk of celiac disease, research shows article http://www.news-medical.net/image.axd?picture=2016%2f3%2fChildren_playing_sunset_-_Zurijeta_8c5bdac77e44431bb1bfec67b9c87208-620×480.jpg http://www.news-medical.net/news/20160923/Amount-of-gluten-triggers-genetic-risk-of-celiac-disease-research-shows.aspx The amount of gluten could be a more important clue than breast-feeding or the timing of the introduction of gluten for continued research into the causes of celiac disease (gluten intolerance). da text/html http://www.news-medical.net/news/20160923/Amount-of-gluten-triggers-genetic-risk-of-celiac-disease-research-shows.aspx http://www.news-medical.net/news/20160921/Study-suggests-interactions-between-distant-DNA-regions-may-impact-disease-gene-levels.aspx http://www.news-medical.net/post.aspx?id=d987e054-6304-44e9-8d06-a166f43a4e0a <p>A person’s DNA sequence can provide a lot of information about how genes are turned on and off, but new research out of Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine suggests the 3-D structure DNA forms as it crams into cells may provide an additional layer of gene control. As long strands of DNA twist and fold, regions far away from each other suddenly find themselves in close proximity. The revolutionary study suggests interactions between distant regions may affect how genes are expressed in certain diseases.</p> <p>Peter Scacheri, PhD, Associate Professor of Genetics and Genome Sciences at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine has been studying how specific regions of DNA physically interact with disease genes. His most recent study, published in Nature Genetics, discovered regions of DNA he termed “outside variants” that physically interact with high-risk mutations in a person’s DNA sequence called single nucleotide polymorphisms, or SNPs. The outside variants suggest a new level of gene regulation and may help explain how identical SNPs can lead to different clinical outcomes.</p> <p>”Our previous work showed that there was more to the expression of a disease gene than just the nearby regulatory elements on the DNA strand, and it seemed logical to look at variants that are brought in close physical proximity to the gene when DNA is packaged in the cell,” said Scacheri. “By looking at these ‘outside variants,’ we can determine the risk associated with disease with better precision than by just looking at the known variants.”</p> <p>The study investigated SNPs associated with six autoimmune diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus, Crohn’s disease, multiple sclerosis, ulcerative colitis, and celiac disease. The SNPs were previously identified through genome-wide association studies, increasingly popular research tools that search DNA sequence data for regions associated with disease. The large-scale studies tend to zero in on SNPs in “enhancer clusters” of DNA, regions known to contort and interact with disease genes. The researchers identified outside variant DNA regions that seemed to be dependent on known disease SNPs, but were found far beyond enhancer clusters normally associated with the diseases.</p> <p>Olivia Corradin, PhD, Fellow and Principal Investigator at Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, former graduate student in Scacheri’s laboratory and lead author of the study explained, “New technologies and DNA sequencing now enable us to evaluate the 3-dimensional organization of DNA within a cell. This gave us the opportunity to assess our hypothesis that multiple DNA variants that are in physical contact with the same gene may help to explain genetic predisposition to disease.”</p> <div class=”related-content-embed”> <h3>Related Stories</h3> </div> <p>Once the researchers discovered outside variants, they studied DNA samples to determine the impact of the regions on disease gene levels. The team used computer models to compare gene levels associated with their newly identified outside variants to those associated with previously identified SNPs. The team discovered outside variants physically interacted with known SNPs within the DNA samples and both genetic elements joined forces to mediate disease risk. Through the models, Scacheri’s team was able to use outside variants to better predict disease risk.</p> <p>According to Scacheri, “The big surprise was when we crunched the numbers and compared the risk associated with the amount of heritability that could be explained by the outside variants. By our calculations, outside variants accounted for a whopping 2-3 times more of the heritability than explained by the current models. That was far more than we had expected.”</p> <p>Further characterization of outside variants revealed they have much in common with enhancer clusters. Proteins that help activate disease genes commonly attach to both regions. In fact, 77% of outside variants identified by the researchers were located near protein attachment sites similar to those found in enhancer clusters. The similarities between outside variants and enhancer clusters support the team’s conclusion that multiple elements work together to control disease genes.</p> <p>Said Corradin, “Imagine you have a light bulb hooked up to multiple dimmer switches in different places in a room. Instead of studying the effect of each switch, one at a time, we studied the light bulb, and asked ‘how do the multiple switches combine to control the room’s light?’ This perspective allowed us to better determine the genetic risk associated with disease.”</p> <p>The study provides a better understanding of how folded DNA employs distant genetic regions to control how genes are turned on or off. Three dimensional models of DNA may therefore reveal other genetic elements that can help explain the complex processes of gene control, and ultimately disease heritability. The outside variants identified in the study may also provide additional biomarkers to assess a person’s risk of disease.</p> <p>”We found outside variants associated with several autoimmune-related disorders, including multiple sclerosis, Crohn’s disease, and arthritis. The next step is to see if this extends to other common diseases, like heart disease and diabetes,” said Scacheri, indicating his research team plans to “determine whether we can use outside variants in a diagnostic or preventive medicine setting to better identify individuals who are most at risk for developing these diseases.”</p> <div class=”content-source”> <div class=”content-src-value”> <p>Case Western Reserve University</p> </div> </div> <p><strong><a href=”https://blockads.fivefilters.org”>Let’s block ads!</a></strong> <a href=”https://github.com/fivefilters/block-ads/wiki/There-are-no-acceptable-ads”>(Why?)</a></p> Wed, 21 Sep 2016 05:17:44 +0000 Study suggests interactions between distant DNA regions may impact disease gene levels article http://www.news-medical.net/image.axd?picture=2014%2f7%2f78486183-620×480.jpg http://www.news-medical.net/news/20160921/Study-suggests-interactions-between-distant-DNA-regions-may-impact-disease-gene-levels.aspx A person’s DNA sequence can provide a lot of information about how genes are turned on and off, but new research out of Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine suggests the 3-D structure DNA forms as it crams into cells may provide an additional layer of gene control. fr text/html http://www.news-medical.net/news/20160921/Study-suggests-interactions-between-distant-DNA-regions-may-impact-disease-gene-levels.aspx http://www.news-medical.net/news/20160906/Enzyme-from-oral-bacteria-could-be-potential-therapy-for-celiac-disease.aspx http://www.news-medical.net/post.aspx?id=34cccdf9-eaf5-4478-b450-f5aa94283a8a <p>Researchers have isolated an enzyme from bacteria present in human saliva that has potential as a therapy for celiac disease (CD), an autoimmune disorder that causes severe digestive and other health problems among sufferers when they consume gluten. An estimated 3 million people in the U.S. have celiac disease. Currently, the main course of treatment for people with CD is adherence to a strict gluten-free diet. The study, published in the American Journal of Physiology—Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology, was chosen as an APS<em>select</em> article for September.</p> <p>”Gluten are proline- and glutamine-rich proteins present in wheat, barley and rye, and contain the immunogenic sequences that drive celiac disease (CD),” the researchers wrote. In other words, the immune response in the small intestine goes into overdrive when people with CD eat gluten.</p> <p>Many patients find sticking to a gluten-free diet difficult—in part because gluten is present in most refined foods—and damaging to their quality of life. The search for new CD treatments has focused on methods that target the peptides in gluten that cause the immune system to overreact. This includes vaccine-based strategies and the use of enzymes that break down gluten and its immune-aggravating components before gluten reaches the small intestine.</p> <div class=”related-content-embed”> <h3>Related Stories</h3> </div> <p>The research team, led by researchers at Boston University’s Henry M. Golden School of Dental Medicine, wrote, “The aim was to isolate and identify the enzymes and evaluate their potential as novel enzyme therapeutics for CD. We have found that exceptionally high gluten-degrading enzyme activities are naturally associated with bacteria that colonize the oral cavity.”</p> <p>Rothia bacteria, found in human saliva, can break down gluten compounds that cause an exaggerated immune response and that are typically resistant to the digestive enzymes that mammals produce. The team isolated a new class of enzymes—gluten-degrading enzymes from Rothia mucilaginosa, an oral microbial colonizer—from Rothia bacteria.</p> <p>The identified Rothia enzymes belong to the same class as food-grade Bacillus enzymes. “B. subtilis is food safe and has been consumed for decades, e.g. in a product called natto, a Japanese fermented soy bean dish,” the researchers wrote. “Despite a long history of consumption of B. subtilis and its products, there are very few reports of adverse events. The food-grade status of B. subtilis, and the already widely consumed natto products, open new avenues for potential therapeutic applications of the subtilisin enzymes.”</p> <p>The researchers concluded, “Going forward, since gluten-degrading enzymes are the preferred therapy of choice for CD, and given the exceptional activity of the subtilisins and their association with natural human microbial colonizers, they are worthy of further exploration for clinical applications in CD and potentially other gluten-intolerance disorders.”</p> <div class=”content-source”> <div class=”content-src-value”> <p>American Physiological Society (APS)</p> </div> </div> <p><strong><a href=”https://blockads.fivefilters.org”>Let’s block ads!</a></strong> <a href=”https://github.com/fivefilters/block-ads/wiki/There-are-no-acceptable-ads”>(Why?)</a></p> Tue, 06 Sep 2016 05:29:33 +0000 Enzyme from oral bacteria could be potential therapy for celiac disease article http://www.news-medical.net/image.axd?picture=2016%2f3%2fbacteria_-_Sebastian_Kaulitzki_46826fb7971649bfaca04a9b4cef3309-620×480.jpg http://www.news-medical.net/news/20160906/Enzyme-from-oral-bacteria-could-be-potential-therapy-for-celiac-disease.aspx Researchers have isolated an enzyme from bacteria present in human saliva that has potential as a therapy for celiac disease (CD), an autoimmune disorder that causes severe digestive and other health problems among sufferers when they consume gluten. it text/html http://www.news-medical.net/news/20160906/Enzyme-from-oral-bacteria-could-be-potential-therapy-for-celiac-disease.aspx

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